Sprinkler irrigation is the use of pipes to send pressurized water to the irrigation area, and through the sprinkler dispersed into small water droplets, evenly sprayed into the field and irrigate crop.
As an advanced mechanized and semi-mechanized irrigation method, it has been widely used in many developed countries.
According to the mobile degree of the main components of the sprinkler system in the irrigation season, it can be divided into three categories: mobile sprinkler, fixed sprinkler and winch sprinkler.
Usually, the main water pipe is fixed buried in the ground, and the branch pipe and sprinkler head in the field can be disassembled, moved and reused, thus it can reduce the investment. In Shunyi County of Beijing, tens of thousands of mu of grain fields are irrigated in this way.
For more than 10 years, the practice has proved that Mobile pipe sprinkler irrigation not only has general advantages of saving water, increasing production, saving labor, lightening the burden on farmers, but also contributes to agricultural mechanization, industrialization and modernization, but also has the advantages of simple equipment, simple operation, low investment, strong adaptability to the size and shape of the field, and can be used by one household or combined households, etc.
At present, it is suitable for China's national conditions and can be vigorously promoted. It can be applied to field crops, vegetables, etc., with an investment of ￥200 to ￥250 per mu.
It fixes pipeline and sprinkler in the field. Its irrigation efficiency is high, and management is simple,. It is suitable for vegetables, fruit trees and cash crop irrigation. But the high investment (mu investment is generally about ￥1000), is not conducive to mechanized farming.
Center support shaft type and translation type large sprinkler：It can only walk within the predetermined range. It can only walk within a predetermined range. Walking area can not have high obstacles. The land should be smooth.
It has a high degree of mechanization and automation, and is suitable for large farms or farmland with a high degree of scale management. Using domestic equipment, per mu investment of ￥300 -￥400 .
Compared with the center support shaft type and translation type large sprinkler, it has the advantages of flexibility, adaptability to the size of the field and low equipment investment of mu. At present, the investment of imported equipment is about ￥50 per mu, and the investment can be further reduced after the localization of equipment. This is a kind of sprinkler irrigation form suitable for China's national conditions and has development prospects, which can be applied to field crops, vegetables and so on.
Capstan-type sprinkler has two kinds of spray gun type and folding frame type, the latter has the advantages of good atomization and low energy consumption. Light and small unit type sprinkler irrigation can be carried by hand or mounted on a trolley or tractor. It has the advantages of flexibility, strong adaptability and low price. It is usually used for drought-resistant sprinkler irrigation in small plots. The investment per mu is ￥100-￥200.
The water-saving effect is remarkable, and the utilization rate of water can reach 90%. Under normal circumstances, compared with surface irrigation, 1 cubic meter of water can be used as 2 cubic meters of water.
(2) The yield increase of crops is large, usually up to 20-40%. The reason is to cancel the agricultural channels, wool channels, field irrigation ditches and ridge, increase the sowing area by 15%-20%; Irrigation even, soil is not rigid, is conducive to the season, preserve seedlings; Improved field microclimate and agricultural ecological environment.
(3) Greatly reduce the workload of field canal system construction, management and maintenance and land leveling.
(4) Reduce the cost and labor of farmers for irrigation and increase farmers' income.
⑸ To accelerate the realization of agricultural mechanization, industrialization and modernization.
⑹ Avoid soil secondary salinization due to overirrigation. Commonly used spray irrigation pipe type, translation type, center support shaft type, reel type and light small unit type.
Commonly used irrigation equipment:
1. Large spray: spray radius 18-24 meters, flow 3-3.6m3/h
2. Medium spray: spray radius 10-15 meters, sprinkler flow: 2-3m3/h
3. Small sprinkler head: spray radius below 10 meters, flow rate 200-500L/h
Suitable for crops: wheat, barley, corn, rice, cotton, soybean, peanut, sesame, sorghum, potato; Plain or mountain fruit trees, tea garden, field, flower nursery and greenhouse crop irrigation.